Published: 12 January 2016
Author(s): Filippo Fassio, Laura Losappio, Dario Antolin-Amerigo, Silvia Peveri, Gianni Pala, Donatella Preziosi, Ilaria Massaro, Gabriele Giuliani, Chiara Gasperini, Marco Caminati, Enrico Heffler
Issue: January 2016
Section: Review Article

Kounis syndrome is defined as the co-incidental occurrence of an acute coronary syndrome with hypersensitivity reactions following an allergenic event and was first described by Kounis and Zavras in 1991 as an allergic angina syndrome.Multiple causes have been described and most of the data in the literature are derived from the description of clinical cases – mostly in adult patients – and the pathophysiology remains only partly explained.Three different variants of Kounis syndrome have been defined: type I (without coronary disease) is defined as chest pain during an acute allergic reaction in patients without risk factors or coronary lesions in which the allergic event induces coronary spasm that electrocardiographic changes secondary to ischemia; type II (with coronary disease) includes patients with pre-existing atheromatous disease, either previously quiescent or symptomatic, in whom acute hypersensitive reactions cause plaque erosion or rupture, culminating in acute myocardial infarction; more recently a type-III variant of Kounis syndrome has been defined in patients with preexisting coronary disease and drug eluting coronary stent thrombosis.

Relevant EFIM Publications

Clinical practice guidelines adaptation for internists - An EFIM methodology

Author(s): Wiktoria Leśniak, Laura Morbidoni, Dror Dicker, Ignacio Marín-León
Date:25 June 2020

The challenge of implementing Less is More medicine: A European perspective

Author(s): Omar Kherad, Nathan Peiffer-Smadja, Lina Karlafti, Margus Lember, Nathalie Van Aerde, Orvar Gunnarsson, Cristian Baicus, Miguel Bigotte Vieira, António Vaz-Carneiro, Antonio Brucato, Ivica Lazurova, Wiktoria Leśniak, Thomas Hanslik, Stephen Hewitt, Eleni Papanicolaou, Olga Boeva, Dror Dicker, Biljana Ivanovska, Pinar Yldiz, Patrick Lacor, Mark Cranston, Frauke Weidanz, Giorgio Costantino, Nicola Montano
Date:16 April 2020

Medical and surgical co-management – A strategy of improving the quality and outcomes of perioperative care

Author(s): Carmen Fierbinţeanu-Braticevicia, Matthias Raspeb, Alin Liviu Predac, Evija Livčāned, Leonid Lazebnike, Soňa Kiňováf, Evert- Jan de Kruijfg, Radovan Hojsh, Thomas Hansliki, Mine Durusu-Tanrioverj, Francesco Dentalik, Xavier Corbellal, Pietro Castellinom, Monica Bivoln, Stefano Bassettio, Vasco Barretop, Eduardo Montero Ruizq, Luis Camposr, The Working Group on Professional Issues and Quality of Care of the European Federation of Internal Medicine (EFIM)
Date:15 November 2018

More publications

What is EFIM?

The principal objectives of EFIM is to promote internal medicine on a scientific educational, ethical and professional level and to support internists in providing better care for patients throughout Europe.

Learn more

What is internal medicine?

The specialty of internal medicine covers a wide range of conditions affecting the internal organs of the body. Although some diseases specifically affect individual organs, the majority of common diseases. The internist must then be trained to recognise and manage a broad range of diseases and, with the aging population, many patients with chronic and multiple disorders.

Learn more

Internal Medicine meets Public

Under construction.

Coronavirus disease 2019 : short notice for public
Watch our webinars