This review focuses on the management of elderly patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. Median age in these neoplasms is within the 6th decades of age. All new therapies can be done at any age without absolute contraindication. However, the selection of the precise therapy for the single patient is mandatory. For these reasons, an accurate definition of diagnosis and prognostication is necessary.