Is the clinical presentation of chronic heart failure different in elderly versus younger patients and those with preserved versus reduced ejection fraction?

Published: 13 June 2018
Author(s): Eva Steinmann, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Micha T. Maeder, Beat A. Kaufmann, Matthias Pfisterer, Peter Rickenbacher
Issue: June 2018
Section: Original Article

Whether the clinical presentation and in particular prevalence of symptoms and signs of heart failure (HF) is different in elderly versus younger patients and in those with reduced (HFrEF) versus preserved (HFpEF) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a matter of ongoing debate.