The ischemic/nephrotoxic Acute Kidney Injury and the use of renal biomarkers in clinical practice

Published: 22 December 2016
Author(s): Michele Andreucci, Teresa Faga, Antonio Pisani, Maria Perticone, Ashour Michael
Section: Narrative Review

The term Acute Renal Failure (ARF) has been replaced by the term Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). AKI indicates an abrupt (within 24–48h) decrease in Glomerular Filtraton Rate, due to renal damage, that causes fluid and metabolic waste retention and alteration of electrolyte and acid-base balance. The renal biomarkers of AKI are substances or processes that are indicators of normal or impaired function of the kidney. The most used renal biomarker is still serum creatinine that is inadequate for several reasons, one of which is its inability to differentiate between hemodynamic changes of renal function (“prerenal azotemia”) from intrinsic renal failure or obstructive nephropathy.