Art and historical personages with probable Graves disease

Published: 24 March 2017
Author(s): Antonio V. Sterpetti, Marco Ventura
Issue: March 2017
Section: Letter to the Editor

Graves disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, was described separately by Dr. Robert J Graves and Dr. Karl Adolph von Basedow in 1835 and 1840 respectively. Historians give credit for the first description to the Persian physician Sayyd Ismail al-Juriani, who in the XII century described a patient with goiter and exophthalmos [1]. We have analyzed 2000 paintings and sculptures from the western civilization to determine the prevalence of personages with Graves disease.