Published: 2 June 2021
Author(s): Gianfranco Sinagra, Linda Pagura, Davide Stolfo, Enrico Fabris, Gianluigi Savarese, Claudio Rapezzi, Roberto Ferrari, Marco Merlo
Issue: August 2021
Section: Review Article

Standard of care for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) combines inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and blockade of the sympathetic system. Evidences derived from former large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) showed mortality benefit and less hospitalizations in patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors (ACEi), beta blockers (BB) and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) [1]. After 15 years of silence, 2014 marked the beginning of a “new era” in HFrEF treatment.


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