Published: 2 December 2016
Author(s): Silvio Garattini, Giuliano Grignaschi
Section: Original Article

Experimental research proceeds by hypotheses formulated on the basis of previous or new knowledge and then tested. If they are accepted, they serve as the basis for further hypotheses, and if they are rejected new hypotheses can be developed. In other words, when we are at the frontiers of knowledge the path is forged by “trial and error”. When a trial shows a hypothesis is wrong, this is a step toward making fewer errors.This process also applies to drug development. There is no magic formula at present to predict - at the pre-clinical level - the therapeutic value of a drug for people with a disease.

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