Published: 13 September 2021
Author(s): Yutao Guo, Gregory Y.H. Lip
Section: Letter to the Editor

The modern treatment approach to AF has evolved with the identification of frequency and duration of AF episodes. Current guidelines recommend the 4S-AF approach to AF characterization and evaluation, following confirmation of the diagnosis [1]. After this, an integrated or holistic approach to AF care is recommended [2], given the improved outcomes with ABC pathway compliance [3, 4]. Given the increased stroke risk associated with the atrial high-rate episodes or subclinical AF burden (≥24 h) detected by implanted cardiac devices, oral anticoagulants should be considered in such patients.


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