Published: 14 July 2016
Author(s): Rafael Dal-Ré, Annette Rid, Ezekiel Emanuel, David Wendler
Issue: July 2016
Section: Letters to the Editor

One of the cornerstones of ethical research is to protect participants from exploitation [1]. Exploitation occurs when investigators, sponsors or others take unfair advantage of participants by failing to provide them with sufficient benefits given the burdens and risks they face (Table 1). For example, one of the paradigm cases of exploitation occurs when a pharmaceutical company earns billions in profit from a new drug that was tested in poor individuals who receive no benefits as a result of their participation.

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