Published: 5 December 2021
Author(s): Carlo Fumagalli, Chiara Zocchi, Luigi Tassetti, Maria Vittoria Silverii, Carla Amato, Luca Livi, Lorenzo Giovannoni, Federica Verrillo, Alessandro Bartoloni, Rossella Marcucci, Federico Lavorini, Stefano Fumagalli, Andrea Ungar, Iacopo Olivotto, Laura Rasero, Francesco Fattirolli, Niccoló Marchionni, AOU Careggi COVID-19 Follow-up study Group
Issue: March 2022

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and its disease (COVID-19), over 200 million cases of infection and 4.37 million deaths have been reported world-wide [1,2]. While the most common acute phase symptoms include cough, fatigue, fever, dyspnea, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, anosmia and dysgeusia [3,4], data on Long-COVID, defined as the persistence of symptoms after 12 weeks from hospital discharge [5,6], is limited and its relevance is still unclear. Early reports suggest that as many as 60–80% of patients with critical COVID-19 show symptoms at 1 month from hospital discharge, with fatigue and dyspnea being the most frequent ones [7].


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