Published: 14 December 2022
Author(s): Malihe Rezaee, Moein Zangiabadian, Amirali Soheili, Tess Moore Calcagno, Maryam Rahmannia, Roshan Dinparastisaleh, Mohammad J. Nasiri, Mehdi Mirsaeidi
Issue: March 2023
Section: Original article

Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by noncaseating granulomas. The exact etiology and underlying mechanisms of sarcoidosis have not been fully elucidated. It is postulated that environmental antigenic stimulation of CD4+ T cells through the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II receptor leads to the production of inflammatory cytokines and macrophage activation [1,2]. Macrophage activation causes the release of cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which in turn stimulates the activation of more CD4+ T cells [3,4].


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