Published: 15 November 2022
Author(s): Athina Dimosiari, Dimitrios Patoulias, Ioannis Pantazopoulos, Epaminondas Zakynthinos, Demosthenes Makris
Issue: March 2023
Section: Letter to the Editor

the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection still represents a major public health concern. Severe COVID-19 is characterized by systemic hyper-inflammation, cytokine storm and rapid progression to respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). [1] Major inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)−6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1, have been shown to be predictors of disease severity and mortality, therefore, it was relatively early proposed that they should represent both prognostic biomarkers, but also treatment targets in COVID-19.


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