Published: 20 October 2023
Author(s): Aurora Rist, Kaja Sevre, Kristian Wachtell, Richard B. Devereux, Gerard P. Aurigemma, Otto A. Smiseth, Sverre E. Kjeldsen, Stevo Julius, Bertram Pitt, Michel Burnier, Reinhold Kreutz, Suzanne Oparil, Giuseppe Mancia, Faiez Zannad
Issue: March 2024
Section: Review Article

Heart failure (HF) affects 2.4 % of the American population and is expected to rise to 3 % by 2030 [1]. The prognosis of HF remains poor, with 5-year mortality above 50 % [2,3]. The fact that ACEIs or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), selected beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), and diuretics, improved the prognosis in HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), did not exclude the possibility that these drugs had similar beneficial prognostic effects in patients with HF and a preserved EF (HFpEF).


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