Published: 14 October 2023
Author(s): Francisco Gomez-Delgado, Manuel Raya-Cruz, Niki Katsiki, Javier Delgado-Lista, Pablo Perez-Martinez
Issue: March 2024
Section: Review Article

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major health problem worldwide and especially in the European Union (EU) with an incidence of 12.7 million new CVD cases per year, 2.2 million deaths in females and over 1.9 million deaths in males, thus being the most common cause of death in EU [1]. To date, and despite all the progress in understanding the impact of lifestyle habits (including new risk factors such as chronodisruption, dysbiosis or environmental pollution) on CVD risk, as well as the development of new lipid-lowering therapies, mainly targeting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as one of the main etiopathogenic factors of atherosclerosis and CVD, the reduction of the CVD risk burden ranges from 60 to 80 % in multiple randomized clinical trials (RCTs), with an increase of CVD events that can range between 2–3 % due to this residual risk if we consider the results of these studies in absolute values [2].


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