Published: 7 November 2019
Author(s): Michele Correale, Stefania Paolillo, Valentina Mercurio, Giuseppe Limongelli, Francesco Barillà, Gaetano Ruocco, Alberto Palazzuoli, Domenico Scutinio, Rocco Lagioia, Carolina Lombardi, Laura Lupi, Damiano Magrì, Daniele Masarone, Giuseppe Pacileo, Pietro Scicchitano, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Gianfranco Parati, Carlo G Tocchetti, Savina Nodari
Section: Narrative Review

The Prevalence of Heart Failure (HF) in the western world is around 1-2% and more than 10% over 70 years of age and the incidence is about 5–10 per 1000 persons per year, representing the leading cause of outpatient visits and the most frequent reason of hospitalization for patients over 65 years of age [1]. Comorbidities are a major issue in HF, leading to poor outcomes, excessive hospitalization and mortality. Comorbidities may be subdivided into cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV. HF in elderly patients is associated with more widespread symptoms and signs due to the presence of non-CV comorbidities.

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