Published: 11 November 2019
Author(s): G. Sinagra, A. Porcari, M. Merlo
Section: Commentary

Over the last decades, major advances in the understanding of pathophysiology in a wide spectrum of cardiovascular diseases provided several effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies [1]. Along with novel rehabilitation and follow up strategies, these advances have improved the survival rate of cardiac diseases, globally, and contributed generally to a significant increase in life expectancy [2]. As a consequence, there is a parallel increase of patients suffering from challenging and multifaceted syndromes such as heart failure (HF).

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