Published: 15 August 2022
Author(s): Michele Vitacca, Mara Paneroni, Antonio Spanevello, Piero Ceriana, Nicolino Ambrosino
Section: Letter to the Editor

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, characterized by persistent and progressive airflow limitation, worsening reduced exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines recommend inhaled combined therapy with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) (triple therapy: TT) in fixed-dose (single-inhaler therapy) or free-dose (multiple inhaler therapies) for moderate-to-severe disease with a history of frequent and/or severe exacerbations (AECOPD) and dyspnoea while using dual bronchodilators [1].


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