Published: 21 January 2020
Author(s): Milazzo Laura, van den Bogaart Lorena, Sollima Salvatore, Oreni Letizia, Lai Alessia, Morena Valentina, Bonazzetti Cecilia, Ridolfo Anna Lisa, Antinori Spinello
Issue: January 2020

Both HIV and HCV infection exert B-cell dysregulation possibly leading to polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, polyclonal B-cell hyperactivity, mixed cryoglobulinemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, as a result of a chronic antigenic stimulation [1–6]. Specifically, HCV can induce B-cell proliferation by antigen stimulation and/or through the binding of its major envelope protein (HCV-E2) with the entry receptor CD81, a tetraspanin expressed on several cell types including human B cells [7,8].

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