Published: 17 November 2020
Author(s): Ineke L. Tan, Sebo Withoff, Jeroen J. Kolkman, Cisca Wijmenga, Rinse K. Weersma, Marijn C. Visschedijk
Issue: January 2021
Section: Original article

Celiac disease (CeD) is a complex immune-mediated disease that occurs in ̴1–2% of the Caucasian population [1]. In patients with CeD, ingestion of gluten peptides that are present in barley, wheat and rye activates the innate and adaptive immune system, eventually leading to the development of villous atrophy in the small intestine. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) subtypes HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 are strongly associated with CeD and are necessary for the development of disease, as they are the molecules that present gluten peptides to the immune system.

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