Published: 14 November 2022
Author(s): Michele Vitacca, Mara Paneroni, Beatrice Salvi, Antonio Spanevello, Piero Ceriana, Claudio Bruschi, Bruno Balbi, Maria Aliani, Nicolino Ambrosino
Issue: January 2023
Section: Original article

Individuals with Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are staged according to symptoms and exacerbation (ECOPD) history, (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) groups A-D) and on airflow obstruction (GOLD airflow severity grades 1–4). [1]


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