Published: 17 February 2024
Author(s): Giacomo Cafaro, Carlo Perricone, Giulia Ronconi, Silvia Calabria, Letizia Dondi, Leonardo Dondi, Antonella Pedrini, Immacolata Esposito, Roberto Gerli, Elena Bartoloni, Nello Martini
Issue: May 2024
Section: Original Article

Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease with a protean clinical phenotype ranging from very mild manifestations of dry eye and dry mouth to life-threatening major organ involvement and damage [1]. It mostly affects females with a female:male ratio of 9–20:1 and can present as a single disease or associated to other autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus [2,3]. Despite the course of pSS is generally indolent and usually not requiring systemic immunosuppressive therapies, even mild forms of the disease almost inevitably detrimentally affect patients’ quality of life [4].


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