Published: 7 November 2019
Author(s): Masatake Kobayashi, Adriaan A. Voors, Nicolas Girerd, Maxime Billotte, Stefan D. Anker, John G. Cleland, Chim C. Lang, Leong L. Ng, Dirk J. van Veldhuisen, Kenneth Dickstein, Macro Metra, Kevin Duarte, Patrick Rossignol, Faiez Zannad, João Pedro Ferreira

Heart failure (HF) therapies have improved patient outcome over the last decades, however those with worsening symptoms and/or signs of HF still have a poor prognosis [1,2]. Both the etiology of HF and the factors leading to its decompensation may influence outcomes and drug response [3–7]. Previous studies have shown that patients with HF of an ischemic etiology have worse prognosis than those with non-ischemic etiology [8,9], and patients with worsening HF precipitated by infection or worsening renal function had worse prognosis than those with worsening HF precipitated by hypertension or noncompliance [7,10,11].

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