Published: 18 October 2015
Author(s): Mohammad Khalid Mojadidi, Panagiota Christia, Jason Salamon, Jared Liebelt, Tarique Zaman, Rubine Gevorgyan, Nariman Nezami, Sanaullah Mojaddedi, Islam Y. Elgendy, Jonathan M. Tobis, Robert Faillace
Issue: October 2015
Section: Review Article

The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20–25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea–orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema.

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