Published: 9 May 2021
Author(s): Jorge Calderón Parra, Daniel De Castro-Campos, Patricia Muñoz García, Maria Olmedo Samperio, Mercedes Marín Arriaza, Aristides De Alarcón, Encarnación Gutierrez-Carretero, Maria Carmen Fariñas Alvarez, Jose María Miró Meda, Miguel Ángel Goneaga Sanchez, Raquel Rodriguez García, Guillermo Ojeda Burgos, Zeltia Valcarce-Gonzalez, Antonio Ramos-Martinez, the Spanish Collaboration on Infectious Endocarditis Group (GAMES) investigators
Issue: October 2021

Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) not included in the HACEK group (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella) is a rare infection that accounts for approximately 2% of all IE and is characterized by high mortality [1]. For several decades this infection has been associated with injecting drug use (IDU) [2]. However, in the last 15 years, an epidemiological transition has been observed resulting in a greater relationship with advanced age, immunosuppression, and nosocomial acquisition [3–6].

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