Published: 18 August 2021
Author(s): Manolis AJ, Boden WE, Collins P, Dechend R, Kallistratos MS, Lopez Sendon J, Poulimenos LE, Ambrosio G, Rosano G
Issue: October 2021
Section: Review Article

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death and disability worldwide [1-5]. Stable angina represents a chronic, often life-long condition involving approximately 2% and 4% of the general population in Europe and United States [1,2,6], and which may and significantly impact quality of life and adversely compromise the activities of daily living [3,4]. In addition, the majority of patients with stable angina have several comorbidities including; hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) [1,5].

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