Published: 14 June 2023
Author(s): Kaiyue Ding, Zhuoyu Li, Yingying Lu, Lin Sun
Section: Original article

As a global health concern, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is threatening the health of 843.6 million people worldwide and is expected to become the 5th leading cause of death in 2040 [1,2]. CKD is defined as structural or functional abnormalities of kidneys for at least 3 months, such as albuminuria, decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR), and abnormal urinary sediment [3,4]. Among a wide spectrum of etiologies, diabetes has become the leading cause of CKD globally, with an increased risk of disease progression, cardiovascular events, and mortality [5,6].


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