Published: 30 May 2023
Author(s): Wenhui Xie, Shiyu Xiao, Xiaoyuan Li, Jing Huang, Guangtao Li, Zhuoli Zhang
Section: Original article

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) constitute an important breakthrough in anticancer treatments, which has been rapidly and widely prescribed worldwide [1]. There are a variety of ICIs currently approved for clinical use: (1) cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors (ipilimumab); (2) programmed death 1 pathway (PD-1) inhibitors (pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and cemiplimab); (3) PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) antagonists (atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab). Despite proven efficacy across various malignancies in numerous clinical trials, ICI can cause a unique spectrum of autoimmune toxicities known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs).


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