Published: 20 September 2021
Author(s): Emanuele Bizzi, Chiara Picchi, Greta Mastrangelo, Massimo Imazio, Antonio Brucato
Issue: January 2022
Section: Review Article

Pericardial diseases are a heterogeneous group of entities, ranging from acute pericarditis (AP) to asymptomatic pericardial effusions. Diagnosis of AP can be made when two of the following criteria are present: chest pain (85–90% of cases), typically sharp and pleuritic, improved by sitting up and leaning forward, pericardial friction rub (present in less than 33% of cases), electrocardiogram changes (up to 60% of cases), with new widespread ST elevation or PR depression in the acute phase and pericardial effusion (up to 60% of cases, generally mild) [1].


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