Published: 9 December 2019
Author(s): Massimo Salvetti, Anna Paini, Laura Andreoli, Deborah Stassaldi, Carlo Aggiusti, Fabio Bertacchini, Claudia Agabiti Rosei, Silvia Piantoni, Franco Franceschini, Angela Tincani, Maria Lorenza Muiesan
Section: Original article

Since 1976 the bimodal pattern of mortality in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) was described: the first peak (3 years after diagnosis) due to active disease and the later peak (4–20 years after diagnosis) due to cardiovascular (CV) disease [1]. Patients with SLE are at least 2- to 3-fold elevated risks of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and cerebrovascular disease compared to the general population [2]; CV diseases represent one of the most important causes of death in these patients [3].

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