Published: 21 April 2022
Author(s): Sidar Copur, Metehan Berkkan, Pantelis Sarafidis, Mehmet Kanbay
Issue: June 2022
Section: Review Article

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by either presence of a decline in renal function, mostly assessed via creatinine or cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements, or clinical or laboratory signs of kidney damage, mostly assessed via albuminuria or urine sediments over 3 months[1]. CKD is the 9th leading cause of mortality in the United States in 2019 with more than 50.000 deaths while the burden of CKD includes considerable debilitating morbidities including chronic heart failure, arrhythmia, hypertension, uremic complications, infections, cerebrovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, thromboembolism, cognitive impairment and dementia[2,3].

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